Brief introduction to Turkey解读

发布于:2021-06-11 03:07:06

Brief Introduction to Turkey
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Background:
? Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa Kemal, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." ? In 1945 Turkey joined the UN and in 1952 it became a member of NATO.

1.Republic of Turkey

? Capital city: Ankara(+2 GMT) ? National flag: red flag including a crescent with a star moving centrally in front of the sun ? Emblem:

? Anthem: Independence March ? State holiday: Independence Day, 29 October (1923) ? Currency: Turkish Lira (TRY) 1 Turkish Lira = 2.89 RMB ? Exchange rate: Turkish liras (TRY) per US dollar 1.899 (2013 est.) 1.796 (2012 est.) 1.5028 (2010 est.) 1.55 (2009) 1.3179 (2008)

2.Geography

? Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe) ? Bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

Location:

? Map references: Middle East ? Size:780,580 sq km ? Natural hazards: very severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van ? Largest city: Istanbul

? the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city, ? it had a population of 4,338,620 in 2012 ? It is the center of the Turkish Government, and houses all foreign embassies. ? It is an important crossroads of trade, strategically located at the center of Turkey's highway and railway networks, and serves as the marketing center for the surrounding agricultural area.

Ankara

Ankara
? The city was famous for its long-haired Angora goat and its prized wool (mohair), a unique breed of cat (Angora cat), Angora rabbits and their prized Angora wool, pears, honey, and the region‘s muscat grapes(麝香葡萄).

Istanbul
? located in north-western Turkey within the Marmara Region on a total area of 5,343 square kilometers. ? the largest city in Turkey, constituting the country's economic, cultural, and historical heart.

? Istanbul is a transcontinental city, straddling the Bosporus— one of the world's busiest waterways—in northwestern Turkey, between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. ? The Bosporus, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the Black Sea, divides the city into a European side-the historic and economic centers, and an Asian side.

3.People

? Population: 81,619,392 (July 2014 est.) ? Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews) ? Ethnic groups: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% ? Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek

? They make up Muslim life, prayer, concern for the needy, self purification and the pilgrimage. They are: --Shahadah: declaring there is no god except God, and Muhammad is God's Messenger

Five Pillars of Islam

--Salat [s?'lɑ:t] : ritual prayer five times a day --Zakat ['zɑ:kɑ:t] : giving 2.5% of one’s savings to the
poor and needy. --Sawm: fasting and self-control during the blessed month of Ramadan --Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime if he/she is able to.

? The ninth month of the Islamic calendar; Muslims worldwide observe this as a month of fasting. ? Fasting means letting nothing pass the lips: no food, drink, chewing gum, tobacco smoke or, for the strictly observant, not even licking an envelope or postage stamp from sunrise to sunset. ? The month lasts 29–30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon, according to numerous biographical accounts compiled in the hadiths(圣训)

Ramazan

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
? Turkish army officer, reformist statesman, and the first President of Turkey.

? Atatürk was a military officer during World War I. ? Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, he led the Turkish National Movement in the Turkish War of Independence and gained the victory ? Atatürk embarked upon a program of political, economic, and cultural reforms, seeking to transform the former Ottoman Empire into a modern and secular(世俗的) nation-state.

? Under his leadership, thousands of new schools were built, primary education was made free and compulsory, and women were given equal civil and political rights, while the burden of taxation on peasants was reduced ? He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey. His surname, Atatürk (meaning "Father of the Turks"), was granted to him in 1934 and forbidden to any other person by the Turkish parliament.

Secularism
? When Ataturk created the Republic of Turkey in 1923, he focused on reforms that would separate the religious beliefs of Turks from public life. ? Secularism (or laicity) was first introduced with the 1928 amendment of the Constitution of 1924, which removed the provision declaring that the "Religion of the State is Islam”.

? Turkish government has challenged many traditional Islamic beliefs and practices to carry out the secularism, causing more tension between Islam and secularism. ? Following quickly upon these developments, a number of social reforms were undertaken. Many of these reforms affected every aspect of Turkish life, moving to erase the legacy of dominance long held by religion and tradition.

? An important issue that has been present in Turkey is the ban on the turban, or headscarf, in public Turkish institutions. ? Religious dress is an important aspect of Islam that is the center of much controversy in Turkey. ? Many Muslim women consider the headscarf as a symbol of faith, and prohibiting this choice of clothing inhibits the personal freedoms of the women of Turkey.

Disputes - international:
? Turkey occupied the northern portion of Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island; relations between the two countries remain strained. ? Periodic military offensives against Kurdish separatists have dislocated part of the population in southeast Turkey and have drawn international condemnation.

European Identity
? Through the reformations of Ataturk’s government, Turkey had continued attempts to enter into the European Union (EU), which would bring them many advantages, including free travel and trade, a single currency, higher living standards, and job and school opportunities.

The EU does have many concerns for the admission of Turkey into the union including: -the GDP of Turkey is lower than most countries in the EU -Many of the reforms made throughout Turkey’s history in hopes of modernizing are the traits that the EU may not accept.

4.Holiday

Official holidays ? Jan 1: New Year's Day

National holidays ? Apr 23: National Sovereignty and Children's Day ? May 1: Labour and Solidarity Day (since 2009)

National Holidays ? May 19: Atatürk Commemoration and Youth & Sports Day (the arrival of Atatürk in Samsun in 1919, and the beginning of the War of Independence) ? Aug 30: Victory Day (victory over invading forces in 1922) ? Oct 29: Republic Day (anniversary of the declaration of the Turkish Republic in 1923)

Religious holidays
? Ramazan Bayrami: Three-day festival when sweets are eaten to celebrate the end of the fast of Ramadan month. Also known as "Seker (sweets) Bayrami" since it's customary to offer candies to family members and friends that are visiting. ? Kurban Bayrami: Four-day festival when sacrificial sheep or cow are slaughtered and their meat distributed to the poor.

Religious holidays
? The dates of these religious festivals change according to the Islamic calendar and thus occur 10-11 days earlier each year. --Ramazan Bayrami in 2014 is on 28-29-30 July, in 2015 will be celebrated on 17-18-19 July. --Kurban Bayrami in 2014 is on 4-5-6-7 October, in 2015 will be celebrated on 23-24-25-26 September

Thank you!
Echo 2014-7-17


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